Excerpts with permission from Graham, Allan W. & Schultz, Terry K. (Editors) (American Society of Addiction Medicine): Principles of Addiction Medicine, 2nd Edition
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Used in three different ways:
- physical dependence, a physiological state of adaptation to a specific psychoactive substance characterized by the emergence of a withdrawal syndrome during abstinence, which may be relieved in total or in part by readministration of the substance
- psychological dependence, a subjective sense of need for a specific psychoactive substance, either for its positive effects or to avoid negative effects associated with its abstinence
- one category of psychoactive Substance Use Disorder.