Expressed emotion (EE) is "an index of familial attitudes shown to be a powerful predictor of schizophrenic relapse" (Leff & Vaughn, 1985). EE scales assess the emotion expressed while a relative talks about a designated patient (who prototypically has recently had a schizophrenic breakdown). Criticism and emotional overinvolvement have been identified as the EE scales that are most highly predictive of later relapse. Affective style (AS) reflects "interpersonal analogs" of EE measured in direct family interaction with the patient present (Doane, West, Goldstein, Rodnick, & Jones, 1981).
- Doane, J. A., West, K. L., Goldstein, M. J., Rodnick, E. H., & Jones, J. E. Parental communication deviance and affective style: Predictors of subsequent schizophrenic spectrum disorders in vulnerable adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry 38:679-685, 1981.