Definition reprinted with permission from Hood, Stephen B. (editor) available from Stuttering Foundation of America: Stuttering Words (Publication No 2: Speech Foundation of America)
A term used by learning theorists to refer to a relationship between a given stimulus or response and immediate consequent stimulation. A contingency may exist between speech situations or words and positive or negative consequences. It may also exist between responses and consequences that are aversive or positive. Contingencies may involve such consequences as positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, the withholding of such reinforcement, and/or punishment.