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Opioid Withdrawal

The brain adapts to use of alcohol and some other drugs in such a way that symptoms may result when the substance is reduced or discontinued, leading to diagnosis of this Substance-Related Disorder. This varies in intensity from no detectable symptoms to extreme discomfort with opioid withdrawal.

  • Grade 0: craving, anxiety, drug-seeking behavior
  • Grade 1: yawning, sweating, lacrimation, rhinorrhea
  • Grade 2: mydriasis, gooseflesh, muscle twitching, anorexia
  • Grade 3: Insomnia, increased pulse, respiratory rate and blood pressure, abdominal cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness


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