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covert features

Unlike the overt behaviors of stuttering which can be seen and/or heard and are relatively easy to measure in terms of their frequency, intensity, duration, and type, the covert behaviors are not openly shown and less easily determined. They include such cognitive and emotional factors as fear, anxiety, negative emotion, shame, guilt and frustration, etc. These "concealed or invisible" features are often difficult to determine. (See interiorized stuttering.)

Definition reprinted with permission from Hood, Stephen B. (editor) available from Stuttering Foundation of America: Stuttering Words (Publication No 2: Speech Foundation of America)


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